Expressive disclosure to improve well-being in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a randomised, controlled trial.

Psychol Health. 2013;28(6):701-13. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2012.754891. Epub 2013 Jan 7.

Averill AJ1, Kasarskis EJ, Segerstrom SC.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal neurological disease associated with progressive paralysis, loss of communicative ability and functional decline. Expressive disclosure may help people with ALS, particularly those who are emotionally or socially inhibited, meet psychological challenges associated with the disease. People with ALS (N = 48) were randomised to expressive disclosure about their disease or no disclosure. Psychological well-being (affect, depression and quality of life) was assessed pre-intervention and also three and six months later. Results of multi-level models indicated that the group that disclosed thoughts and feelings about ALS had higher well-being than the control group at three months post-intervention, but not six months. Ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) moderated three-month post-intervention well-being. Those low in AEE had higher well-being than those high in AEE regardless of condition. Those high in AEE, who disclosed, had increased well-being from pre-intervention, whereas controls had decreased well-being from pre-intervention. Expressive disclosure may be helpful for people with ALS, but only those who have difficulty expressing emotions. In addition, the intervention had only temporary effects; the dynamic challenges of ALS progression may mean that the effect of processing thoughts and feelings about the disease in one stage may not generalise to later stages.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4302768/

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Linguistic Markers of Processing Trauma Experience in Women’s Written Narratives During Different Breast Cancer Phases: Implications for Clinical Interventions

Eur J Psychol. 2015 Nov; 11(4): 651–663.
Published online 2015 Nov 27. doi:  10.5964/ejop.v11i4.991
Research into the change processes underlying the benefits of expressive writing is still incomplete. To fill this gap, we investigated the linguistic markers of change in cognitive and emotional processing among women with breast cancer, highlighting the differences and peculiarities during different treatment phases. A total of 60 writings were collected from 20 women: 10 receiving chemotherapy and 10 receiving biological therapy. We performed a series of repeated measures ANOVA for the most meaningful LIWC linguistic categories, including positive/negative emotions and cognitive processes, to assess change over three sessions. Results demonstrated a significant increase in the positive emotions category for the entire group of women, with particular relevance for the biological therapy group of women, and a marginally significant (p = .07) greater use of words indicating cognitive processes for women receiving biological therapy. For the negative emotions category time was significant for the whole group of women, showing a peak of use in the second session of writing. Peculiar differences in the linguistic markers of processing trauma were observed between the two groups. Although the writing intervention is a support for both groups of women, it seems to be beneficial when there is a large time gap since the administration of chemotherapy and, thus, when the patient can revisit the experience. The relationship of the illness with life can be rearticulated, and the writing becomes a space for resignifying the traumatic cancer experience.

Linguistic Markers of Processing Trauma Experience in Women’s Written Narratives During Different Breast Cancer Phases: Implications for Clinical Interventions.

Eur J Psychol. 2015 Nov 27;11(4):651-63. doi: 10.5964/ejop.v11i4.991. eCollection 2015 Nov.

Martino ML1, Onorato R1, Freda MF1.

Research into the change processes underlying the benefits of expressive writing is still incomplete. To fill this gap, we investigated the linguistic markers of change in cognitive and emotional processing among women with breast cancer, highlighting the differences and peculiarities during different treatment phases. A total of 60 writings were collected from 20 women: 10 receiving chemotherapy and 10 receiving biological therapy. We performed a series of repeated measures ANOVA for the most meaningful LIWC linguistic categories, including positive/negative emotions and cognitive processes, to assess change over three sessions. Results demonstrated a significant increase in the positive emotions category for the entire group of women, with particular relevance for the biological therapy group of women, and a marginally significant (p = .07) greater use of words indicating cognitive processes for women receiving biological therapy. For the negative emotions category time was significant for the whole group of women, showing a peak of use in the second session of writing. Peculiar differences in the linguistic markers of processing trauma were observed between the two groups. Although the writing intervention is a support for both groups of women, it seems to be beneficial when there is a large time gap since the administration of chemotherapy and, thus, when the patient can revisit the experience. The relationship of the illness with life can be rearticulated, and the writing becomes a space for resignifying the traumatic cancer experience.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27247683

Capturing the Experience: Reflections of Women With Breast Cancer Engaged in an Expressive Writing Intervention.

Cancer Nurs. 2016 Jul-Aug;39(4):E51-60. doi: 10.1097/NCC.0000000000000300.

Gripsrud BH1, Brassil KJ, Summers B, Søiland H, Kronowitz S, Lode K.

Expressive writing has been shown to improve quality of life, fatigue, and posttraumatic stress among breast cancer patients across cultures. Understanding how and why the method may be beneficial to patients can increase awareness of the psychosocial impact of breast cancer and enhance interventional work within this population. Qualitative research on experiential aspects of interventions may inform the theoretical understanding and generate hypotheses for future studies.

AIM:

The aim of the study was to explore and describe the experience and feasibility of expressive writing among women with breast cancer following mastectomy and immediate or delayed reconstructive surgery.

METHODS:

Seven participants enrolled to undertake 4 episodes of expressive writing at home, with semistructured interviews conducted afterward and analyzed using experiential thematic analysis.

RESULTS:

Three themes emerged through analysis: writing as process, writing as therapeutic, and writing as a means to help others.

CONCLUSIONS:

Findings illuminate experiential variations in expressive writing and how storytelling encourages a release of cognitive and emotional strains, surrendering these to reside in the text. The method was said to process feelings and capture experiences tied to a new and overwhelming illness situation, as impressions became expressions through writing. Expressive writing, therefore, is a valuable tool for healthcare providers to introduce into the plan of care for patients with breast cancer and potentially other cancer patient groups.

IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:

This study augments existing evidence to support the appropriateness of expressive writing as an intervention after a breast cancer diagnosis. Further studies should evaluate its feasibility at different time points in survivorship.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26390074