Violence Vict. 2005 Dec;20(6):717-28.
Writing often helps people deal with trauma. To see if writing about childhood physical or sexual abuse, or positive experiences, helps, psychology undergraduates wrote for 20 minutes on 4 days about their abuse, a positive experience, or a trivial topic. Among 102 who began and 85 who completed pre-, post-, and 4-week follow-up measures of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideas, abuse writers were more likely to discontinue, and positive writers were more depressed and anxious. Compared to pretest, all completers were less depressed, anxious, and suicidal at follow-up, but nonsignificantly different in health visits. Completers who wrote about abuse rated the study as more valuable than did those who wrote about positive experiences. College students who wrote about childhood physical or sexual abuse benefited from any type of structured writing assignment (where they interacted with a researcher and got extra credit) in terms of reduced anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideas, but they found value in writing about their trauma more than writing about innocuous topics.
Cognit Ther Res. 2013 Aug 1;37(4):690-696.
Sudden gains are large reductions in symptoms measured in a single between-session interval and are positively associated with long-term treatment outcomes. To date, sudden gains have mostly been observed in therapist-directed psychotherapies. There are currently mixed findings surrounding the mechanisms underlying sudden gains, with some support for a cognitive mechanism and some support for therapist characteristics such as the therapeutic alliance. In this study of 77 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, sudden gains in trauma symptoms were found in a randomized clinical trial of a patient-directed expressive writing intervention. Women in the active treatment condition (who wrote about their beliefs related to sexuality or trauma) exhibiting sudden gains in trauma symptoms showed larger improvements in depression than those in the control condition (who merely wrote about their daily needs). The extension of sudden gains from psychotherapy to a client-directed treatment refines our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these gains, and supports the hypothesis that cognitive change is a likely mechanism underlying sudden gains.
Psychol Trauma. 2015 Jan;7(1):50-7. doi: 10.1037/a0036462. Epub 2014 Aug 18.
An expressive writing treatment was recently reported to reduce depressive symptoms and improve sexual function and satisfaction in a sample of female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (Meston, Lorenz, & Stephenson, 2013). We conducted a linguistic analysis of this data to determine whether pre- to posttreatment changes in participants’ language use were associated with the improvements in sexuality and depression. Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC), a program that counts the use of word categories within a text, was used to evaluate the impact of several word categories, previously associated with changes in mental health (Frattaroli, 2006), and shown to differ between childhood sexual abuse survivors and nonabused women (Lorenz & Meston, 2012), on treatment outcomes. A reduction in the use of the word “I” and an increase in positive emotion words were associated with decreased depression symptoms. A reduction in the use of “I” and negative emotion words were associated with improvement in sexual function and sexual satisfaction. The findings suggest that, because language may serve as an implicit measure of depression and sexual health, monitoring language changes during treatment may provide a reliable indicator of treatment response free of the biases of traditional self-report assessments.
J Sex Med. 2013 Sep;10(9):2177-89. doi: 10.1111/jsm.12247. Epub 2013 Jul 22.
Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have high rates of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems in adulthood.
We tested an expressive writing-based intervention for its effects on psychopathology, sexual function, satisfaction, and distress in women who have a history of CSA.
Seventy women with CSA histories completed five 30-minute sessions of expressive writing, either with a trauma focus or a sexual schema focus.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Validated self-report measures of psychopathology and sexual function were conducted at posttreatment: 2 weeks, 1 month, and 6 months.
Women in both writing interventions exhibited improved symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women who were instructed to write about the impact of the abuse on their sexual schema were significantly more likely to recover from sexual dysfunction.
Expressive writing may improve depressive and PTSD symptoms in women with CSA histories. Sexual schema-focused expressive writing in particular appears to improve sexual problems, especially for depressed women with CSA histories. Both treatments are accessible, cost-effective, and acceptable to patients.