J Commun. 2011 Jun;61(3):432-464.
Shim M1, Cappella JN2, Han JY3.
Despite much research on the beneficial effects of written disclosure, relatively little attention has been paid to specifying the mechanism underlying the effects. Building upon the two theoretical models (the cognitive adaptation model and the emotional exposure-habituation model), this research focused on two aspects of disclosure content—insights and emotions—and examined how women with breast cancer benefit from written disclosure in online support groups. Using survey data collected at baseline and after four months and messages posted in bulletin-board-type online groups in between, we analyzed how the content of disclosive messages predicted health outcomes. Disclosure of insights led to greater improvements in health self-efficacy, emotional well-being, and functional well-being, which was mediated by lowered breast cancer concerns. Disclosure of negative emotions did not have main effects on health outcomes; instead, it weakened the unfavorable association between concerns at baseline and functional well-being at follow-up. Our findings support both theoretical models, but in regard to different aspects of disclosure content.
Patient Prefer Adherence. 2011 Jan 6;5:15-21. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S15155.
Furnes B1, Dysvik E.
This paper, the second of two, reports the results of a systematic writing program used as a tool in the grief process. The study was based on a specifically developed program, which has been described and discussed previously in Part 1.
The study had a qualitative research design, with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The research tool of the study, a writing program, was developed and implemented. A purposive sample was used, consisting of 13 bereaved adults.
From an analysis of all of the texts written during the program, we drew four conclusions. Writing yields new thoughts and increases knowledge. Writing is stressful as well as a relief. Writing awakens and preserves memories. The value of writing is related to the forms, ways, and situations of writing.
We have discussed handling grief with a unique process. Our findings reveal a great breadth and variation in the experiences associated with different writing forms, ways of writing, and writing situations. This implies that flexibility and individualization are important when implementing grief management programs like this. We believe that a structured writing program can be helpful in promoting thought activity and as a tool to gain increased coherence and understanding of the grief process. This writing program may be a valuable guide for program development and future research.
Pain. 2011 Apr;152(4):866-77. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.01.003.
Lumley MA1, Leisen JC, Partridge RT, Meyer TM, Radcliffe AM, Macklem DJ, Naoum LA, Cohen JL, Lasichak LM, Lubetsky MR, Mosley-Williams AD, Granda JL.
Studies of the effects of disclosing stressful experiences among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have yielded inconsistent findings, perhaps due to different disclosure methods–writing or speaking–and various methodological limitations. We randomized adults with RA to a writing (n=88) or speaking (to a recorder) sample (n=93), and within each sample, to either disclosure or 1 of 2 control groups (positive or neutral events), which conducted four 20-minute, at-home sessions. Follow-up evaluations at 1, 3, and 6 months included self-reported, behavioral, physiological, and blinded physician-assessed outcomes. In both writing and speaking samples, the disclosure and control groups were comparably credible, and the linguistic content differed as expected. Covariance analyses at each follow-up point indicated that written disclosure had minimal effects compared with combined controls–only pain was reduced at 1 and 6 months, but no other outcomes improved. Spoken disclosure led to faster walking speed at 3 months, and reduced pain, swollen joints, and physician-rated disease activity at 6 months, but there were no effects on other outcomes. Latent growth curve modeling examined differences in the trajectory of change over follow-up. Written disclosure improved affective pain and walking speed; spoken disclosure showed only a marginal benefit on sensory pain. In both analyses, the few benefits of disclosure occurred relative to both positive and neutral control groups. We conclude that both written and spoken disclosure have modest benefits for patients with RA, particularly at 6 months, but these effects are limited in scope and consistency.
full article https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3065513/