How Does Insightful and Emotional Disclosure Bring Potential Health Benefits?: Study Based on Online Support Groups for Women with Breast Cancer.

J Commun. 2011 Jun;61(3):432-464.

Shim M1, Cappella JN2, Han JY3.

PMID:25568496PMCID:PMC4283796DOI:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01555.x

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4283796/

 

Despite much research on the beneficial effects of written disclosure, relatively little attention has been paid to specifying the mechanism underlying the effects. Building upon the two theoretical models (the cognitive adaptation model and the emotional exposure-habituation model), this research focused on two aspects of disclosure content—insights and emotions—and examined how women with breast cancer benefit from written disclosure in online support groups. Using survey data collected at baseline and after four months and messages posted in bulletin-board-type online groups in between, we analyzed how the content of disclosive messages predicted health outcomes. Disclosure of insights led to greater improvements in health self-efficacy, emotional well-being, and functional well-being, which was mediated by lowered breast cancer concerns. Disclosure of negative emotions did not have main effects on health outcomes; instead, it weakened the unfavorable association between concerns at baseline and functional well-being at follow-up. Our findings support both theoretical models, but in regard to different aspects of disclosure content.

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Conversation about poetry/writing therapy: Two European perspectives

Pages 167-186 | Published online: 08 Jul 2011

This conversation about poetry/writing therapy germinated from many discussions between two authors with long experience in the field. Their conversation has an essentially European quality, deepened by cultural differences. They talk about fundamental principles and values used in their practice and professional writing; their own personal writing experience that brought them to this work; characteristics and history of European approaches; its foundations in education, psychology, and philosophy; the difference and similarities between published literary writing and therapeutic writing; and the role of metaphor, narrative, and descriptive observation writing. An eclectic range of references, vital to the field, including selected research trial evidence from the United States and Europe, are drawn upon and critically discussed.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08893675.2011.593395

Poetry writing as a healing method in coping with a special needs child: A narrative perspective

Pages 117-125 | Published online: 09 May 2011

The focus of this article is on the role poetry writing plays in helping those bereaved or depressed to cope with their emotions. Through a therapeutic process of applying her thoughts to writing poetry, the author, mother of a special needs child, expresses herself and the trauma of her experience. The writer utilizes free verse to allow thoughts to freely form on the page instead of forcing them into a tightly constructed form that might hinder the therapeutic writing process.

Writing poetry: Recovery and growth following trauma

Pages 79-91 | Published online: 09 May 2011

Integrating narrative/poetic content with the professional literature relating to trauma, the author explored how writing poetry contributed to her recovery and growth following the murder of her sister. It was concluded that writing poetry helped to reduce internal conflict and restore psychological balance. Metaphors and symbols enabled the exploration of the author’s response to trauma, which in turn led to recovery and growth.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08893675.2011.573285

Beyond the classroom: Writing as therapy

Pages 93-104 | Published online: 09 May 2011

The focus of this article is on the use of therapeutic writing methods in high school English classes. The genres include essay, autobiography, and poetry. Classroom assignments and student work are included with the delineation of specific techniques. A review of the theory and practice of writing is therapy is provided. Implications for further practice and research, including ethical issues, are also addressed.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08893675.2011.574355

Results from a systematic writing program in grief process: part 2.

Patient Prefer Adherence. 2011 Jan 6;5:15-21. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S15155.

Furnes B1, Dysvik E.

This paper, the second of two, reports the results of a systematic writing program used as a tool in the grief process. The study was based on a specifically developed program, which has been described and discussed previously in Part 1.

METHODS:

The study had a qualitative research design, with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The research tool of the study, a writing program, was developed and implemented. A purposive sample was used, consisting of 13 bereaved adults.

RESULTS:

From an analysis of all of the texts written during the program, we drew four conclusions. Writing yields new thoughts and increases knowledge. Writing is stressful as well as a relief. Writing awakens and preserves memories. The value of writing is related to the forms, ways, and situations of writing.

CONCLUSION:

We have discussed handling grief with a unique process. Our findings reveal a great breadth and variation in the experiences associated with different writing forms, ways of writing, and writing situations. This implies that flexibility and individualization are important when implementing grief management programs like this. We believe that a structured writing program can be helpful in promoting thought activity and as a tool to gain increased coherence and understanding of the grief process. This writing program may be a valuable guide for program development and future research.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3034296/

Does emotional disclosure about stress improve health in rheumatoid arthritis? Randomized, controlled trials of written and spoken disclosure.

Pain. 2011 Apr;152(4):866-77. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2011.01.003.

Lumley MA1, Leisen JC, Partridge RT, Meyer TM, Radcliffe AM, Macklem DJ, Naoum LA, Cohen JL, Lasichak LM, Lubetsky MR, Mosley-Williams AD, Granda JL.

Studies of the effects of disclosing stressful experiences among patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have yielded inconsistent findings, perhaps due to different disclosure methods–writing or speaking–and various methodological limitations. We randomized adults with RA to a writing (n=88) or speaking (to a recorder) sample (n=93), and within each sample, to either disclosure or 1 of 2 control groups (positive or neutral events), which conducted four 20-minute, at-home sessions. Follow-up evaluations at 1, 3, and 6 months included self-reported, behavioral, physiological, and blinded physician-assessed outcomes. In both writing and speaking samples, the disclosure and control groups were comparably credible, and the linguistic content differed as expected. Covariance analyses at each follow-up point indicated that written disclosure had minimal effects compared with combined controls–only pain was reduced at 1 and 6 months, but no other outcomes improved. Spoken disclosure led to faster walking speed at 3 months, and reduced pain, swollen joints, and physician-rated disease activity at 6 months, but there were no effects on other outcomes. Latent growth curve modeling examined differences in the trajectory of change over follow-up. Written disclosure improved affective pain and walking speed; spoken disclosure showed only a marginal benefit on sensory pain. In both analyses, the few benefits of disclosure occurred relative to both positive and neutral control groups. We conclude that both written and spoken disclosure have modest benefits for patients with RA, particularly at 6 months, but these effects are limited in scope and consistency.

 

full article https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3065513/