Psychol Health. 2017 Jul;32(7):826-842. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2017.1307372. Epub 2017 Mar 30.
Sohl SJ1, Dietrich MS2, Wallston KA2, Ridner SH2.
Breast cancer survivors who develop lymphedema report poorer quality of life (QoL) than those without lymphedema. Expressive writing is a potential intervention to address QoL.
Adult women (N = 107) with breast cancer and chronic Stage II lymphedema were randomised to writing about thoughts and feelings specific to lymphedema and its treatment (intervention) or about daily activities (control) for four, 20-min sessions.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:
Outcome measures were several indicators of QoL assessed at baseline, one, three, and six months post-intervention (total scores and subscales of Upper Limb Lymphedema 27 and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast). Hypothesised moderators of change in QoL were dispositional optimism, avoidant behaviours, and time since lymphedema diagnosis.
There was no statistically significant intent-to-treat main effects of expressive writing on QoL. Statistically significant moderating effects on change in different indicators of QoL were observed for all three moderators. Expressive writing was more effective for improving QoL in women who were higher on optimism, lower on avoidance and had less time since a lymphedema diagnosis.
These results provide further evidence that there are subsets of individuals for whom expressive writing is more effective. Future research may investigate targeting expressive writing based on identified moderators.
Published online 2013 Dec 23. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2013.868887
Jonathan A. Beyer, Mark A. Lumley, Deborah A. Latsch, Lindsay M.S. Oberleitner, Jennifer N. Carty, and Alison M. Radcliffe
Standard written emotional disclosure (WED) about stress, which is private and unguided, yields small health benefits. The effect of providing individualized guidance to writers may enhance WED, but has not been tested. This trial of computer-based WED compared two novel therapist-guided forms of WED—advance guidance (before sessions) or real-time guidance (during sessions, through instant messaging)—to both standard WED and control writing; it also tested Big 5 personality traits as moderators of guided WED. Young adult participants (n = 163) with unresolved stressful experiences were randomized to conditions, had three, 30-min computer-based writing sessions, and were reassessed 6 weeks later. Contrary to hypotheses, real-time guidance WED had poorer outcomes than the other conditions on several measures, and advance guidance WED also showed some poorer outcomes. Moderator analyses revealed that participants with low baseline agreeableness, low extraversion, or high conscientiousness had relatively poor responses to guidance. We conclude that providing guidance for WED, especially in real-time, may interfere with emotional processing of unresolved stress, particularly for people whose personalities have poor fit with this interactive form of WED.
Patient Prefer Adherence. 2011 Jan 6;5:15-21. doi: 10.2147/PPA.S15155.
Furnes B1, Dysvik E.
This paper, the second of two, reports the results of a systematic writing program used as a tool in the grief process. The study was based on a specifically developed program, which has been described and discussed previously in Part 1.
The study had a qualitative research design, with a hermeneutic phenomenological approach. The research tool of the study, a writing program, was developed and implemented. A purposive sample was used, consisting of 13 bereaved adults.
From an analysis of all of the texts written during the program, we drew four conclusions. Writing yields new thoughts and increases knowledge. Writing is stressful as well as a relief. Writing awakens and preserves memories. The value of writing is related to the forms, ways, and situations of writing.
We have discussed handling grief with a unique process. Our findings reveal a great breadth and variation in the experiences associated with different writing forms, ways of writing, and writing situations. This implies that flexibility and individualization are important when implementing grief management programs like this. We believe that a structured writing program can be helpful in promoting thought activity and as a tool to gain increased coherence and understanding of the grief process. This writing program may be a valuable guide for program development and future research.