How Does Insightful and Emotional Disclosure Bring Potential Health Benefits?: Study Based on Online Support Groups for Women with Breast Cancer.

J Commun. 2011 Jun;61(3):432-464.

Shim M1, Cappella JN2, Han JY3.

PMID:25568496PMCID:PMC4283796DOI:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01555.x

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4283796/

 

Despite much research on the beneficial effects of written disclosure, relatively little attention has been paid to specifying the mechanism underlying the effects. Building upon the two theoretical models (the cognitive adaptation model and the emotional exposure-habituation model), this research focused on two aspects of disclosure content—insights and emotions—and examined how women with breast cancer benefit from written disclosure in online support groups. Using survey data collected at baseline and after four months and messages posted in bulletin-board-type online groups in between, we analyzed how the content of disclosive messages predicted health outcomes. Disclosure of insights led to greater improvements in health self-efficacy, emotional well-being, and functional well-being, which was mediated by lowered breast cancer concerns. Disclosure of negative emotions did not have main effects on health outcomes; instead, it weakened the unfavorable association between concerns at baseline and functional well-being at follow-up. Our findings support both theoretical models, but in regard to different aspects of disclosure content.

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Writing for Health: Rationale and Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial of Internet-Based Benefit-Finding Writing for Adults With Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes.

JMIR Res Protoc. 2017 Mar 14;6(3):e42. doi: 10.2196/resprot.7151.

Crawford J1,2, Wilhelm K1,2,3, Robins L1,3, Proudfoot J2,4.

Diabetes mellitus is Australia’s fastest growing chronic disease, and has high comorbidity with depression. Both subthreshold depression and diabetes distress are common amongst people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, and are associated with poorer diabetes self-care. A need exists for low-intensity self-help interventions for large numbers of people with diabetes and diabetes distress or subthreshold depression, as part of a stepped-care approach to meeting the psychological needs of people with diabetes. Benefit-finding writing is a very brief intervention that involves writing about any positive thoughts and feelings about a stressful experience, such as an illness. Benefit-finding writing has been associated with increases in positive affect and positive growth, and has demonstrated promising results in trials amongst other clinical populations. However, benefit-finding writing has not yet been examined in people with diabetes.

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this randomized controlled trial (RCT) is to evaluate the efficacy of an Internet-based benefit-finding writing (iBFW) intervention for adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (compared to a control writing condition) for reducing diabetes distress and increasing benefit-finding in diabetes, and also improving a range of secondary outcomes.

METHODS:

A two-arm RCT will be conducted, using the online program Writing for Health. Adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes living in Australia will be recruited using diabetes-related publications and websites, and through advertisements in diabetes services and general practitioners’ offices. Potential participants will be referred to the study-specific website for participant information and screening. All data will be collected online. Participants will be randomized to either iBFW about diabetes, or a control writing condition of writing about use-of-time. Both conditions involve three daily sessions (once per day for three consecutive days) of 15-minute online writing exercises. Outcome measures will be administered online at baseline, one-month, and three-month follow-ups.

RESULTS:

This trial is currently underway. The primary outcomes will be diabetes distress and benefit-finding in diabetes. Secondary outcomes will be depression, anxiety, diabetes self-care, perceived health, and health care utilization. We aim to recruit 104 participants. All stages of the study will be conducted online using the Writing for Health program. Group differences will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis using mixed models repeated measures. Linguistic analyses of the writing exercise scripts, and examinations of the immediate emotional responses to the writing exercises, will also be undertaken.

CONCLUSIONS:

This RCT will be the first study to examine iBFW for adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. If iBFW is found to be efficacious in reducing diabetes distress and improving diabetes self-care and other outcomes, iBFW may offer the potential to be a low-cost, easily accessible self-help intervention to improve the wellbeing of adults with diabetes.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN12615000241538).

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28292741

 

Insights from an expressive writing intervention on Facebook to help alleviate depressive symptoms

Sang WonLeeab1InyeopKimc1JaehyunYooa1SungkyuParkdBumseokJeongaeMeeyoungChad

Computers in Human Behavior

Volume 62, September 2016, Pages 613-619
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders. Studies have shown that various online social network (OSN) activities can be used as a marker for people’s moods as well as symptoms of subsyndromal depression, suggesting possibilities for online-based interventions. This study investigates one such potential by developing an expressive writing application within Facebook and by investigating how the designed intervention as well as various online social network activities contribute to improving one’s emotional state. Experimental data show that negative emotional words and cognitive words in online expressive writing are the two most important factors in alleviating depressive symptoms. Furthermore, participants who have had previous experience expressing emotions in OSNs reported the greatest reduction in depressive symptoms. Our findings have implications that can assist in designing personalized online intervention platforms and for sophisticated writing therapy to maximize the effect of expressive writing.

 

Insights from an expressive writing intervention on Facebook to help alleviate depressive symptoms

Sang WonLeeab1InyeopKimc1JaehyunYooa1SungkyuParkdBumseokJeongaeMeeyoungChad

Computers in Human Behavior

Volume 62, September 2016, Pages 613-619
Depression is one of the most common mental disorders. Studies have shown that various online social network (OSN) activities can be used as a marker for people’s moods as well as symptoms of subsyndromal depression, suggesting possibilities for online-based interventions. This study investigates one such potential by developing an expressive writing application within Facebook and by investigating how the designed intervention as well as various online social network activities contribute to improving one’s emotional state. Experimental data show that negative emotional words and cognitive words in online expressive writing are the two most important factors in alleviating depressive symptoms. Furthermore, participants who have had previous experience expressing emotions in OSNs reported the greatest reduction in depressive symptoms. Our findings have implications that can assist in designing personalized online intervention platforms and for sophisticated writing therapy to maximize the effect of expressive writing.