Taking a step back: Self-distancing dynamics in adolescent writing about peer problems

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014019711830023X

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The effects of expressive writing before or after punch biopsy on wound healing

https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S088915911630527X

How Does Insightful and Emotional Disclosure Bring Potential Health Benefits?: Study Based on Online Support Groups for Women with Breast Cancer.

J Commun. 2011 Jun;61(3):432-464.

Shim M1, Cappella JN2, Han JY3.

PMID:25568496PMCID:PMC4283796DOI:10.1111/j.1460-2466.2011.01555.x

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4283796/

 

Despite much research on the beneficial effects of written disclosure, relatively little attention has been paid to specifying the mechanism underlying the effects. Building upon the two theoretical models (the cognitive adaptation model and the emotional exposure-habituation model), this research focused on two aspects of disclosure content—insights and emotions—and examined how women with breast cancer benefit from written disclosure in online support groups. Using survey data collected at baseline and after four months and messages posted in bulletin-board-type online groups in between, we analyzed how the content of disclosive messages predicted health outcomes. Disclosure of insights led to greater improvements in health self-efficacy, emotional well-being, and functional well-being, which was mediated by lowered breast cancer concerns. Disclosure of negative emotions did not have main effects on health outcomes; instead, it weakened the unfavorable association between concerns at baseline and functional well-being at follow-up. Our findings support both theoretical models, but in regard to different aspects of disclosure content.

Experimental disclosure and its moderators: a meta-analysis.

Psychol Bull. 2006 Nov;132(6):823-65.

Frattaroli J1.

PMID:17073523 DOI:10.1037/0033-2909.132.6.823

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17073523

 

Disclosing information, thoughts, and feelings about personal and meaningful topics (experimental disclosure) is purported to have various health and psychological consequences (e.g., J. W. Pennebaker, 1993). Although the results of 2 small meta-analyses (P. G. Frisina, J. C. Borod, & S. J. Lepore, 2004; J. M. Smyth, 1998) suggest that experimental disclosure has a positive and significant effect, both used a fixed effects approach, limiting generalizability. Also, a plethora of studies on experimental disclosure have been completed that were not included in the previous analyses. One hundred forty-six randomized studies of experimental disclosure were collected and included in the present meta-analysis. Results of random effects analyses indicate that experimental disclosure is effective, with a positive and significant average r-effect size of .075. In addition, a number of moderators were identified.

Differential efficacy of written emotional disclosure for subgroups of fibromyalgia patients.

Br J Health Psychol. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2009 Oct 8.
Published in final edited form as:

Objectives

To identify differential health benefits of written emotional disclosure (ED).

Methods

Pain-coping style and demographic characteristics were examined as potential moderators of ED treatment efficacy in a randomized controlled trial with female fibromyalgia patients.

Results

Of three pain-coping styles, only patients classified as interpersonally distressed (ID) experienced significant treatment effects on psychological well-being, pain, and fatigue. Treatment effects on psychological well-being were also significantly greater for patients with a high level of education.

Conclusions

Patients with an ID-coping style and/or high education appear to benefit most from ED.

A randomized controlled trial of emotionally expressive writing for women with metastatic breast cancer.

Health Psychol. 2010 Jul;29(4):460-6. doi: 10.1037/a0020153.

Low CA1, Stanton AL, Bower JE, Gyllenhammer L.

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3128513/

 

Objective

To test the effects of emotionally expressive writing in a randomized controlled trial of metastatic breast cancer patients and to determine whether effects of the intervention varied as a function of perceived social support or time since metastatic diagnosis.

Design

Women (N = 62) living with Stage IV breast cancer were randomly assigned to write about cancer-related emotions (EMO; n = 31) or the facts of their diagnosis and treatment (CTL; n = 31). Participants wrote at home for four 20-min sessions within a 3-week interval.

Main Outcome Measures

Depressive symptoms, cancer-related intrusive thoughts, somatic symptoms, and sleep quality at 3 months postintervention.

Results

No significant main effects of experimental condition were observed. A significant condition × social support interaction emerged on intrusive thoughts; EMO writing was associated with reduced intrusive thoughts for women reporting low emotional support (η2 = .15). Significant condition × time since metastatic diagnosis interactions were also observed for somatic symptoms and sleep disturbances. Relative to CTL, EMO participants who were more recently diagnosed had fewer somatic symptoms (η2 = .10), whereas EMO participants with longer diagnosis duration exhibited increases in sleep disturbances (η2 = .09).

Conclusion

Although there was no main effect of expressive writing on health among the current metastatic breast cancer sample, expressive writing may be beneficial for a subset of metastatic patients (including women with low levels of emotional support or who have been recently diagnosed) and contraindicated for others (i.e., those who have been living with the diagnosis for years).