Spiritual Journaling and Grief

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301222863_Spiritual_Journaling/download

How to Use Expressive Writing to Cope With an Eye Condition

https://www.verywellhealth.com/how-writing-helps-cope-with-a-disability-4115570

Writing for protection: Reflective practice as a counsellor

Pages 191-198 | Published online: 21 Aug 2006

Expressive and reflective writing has been one way of recording personal changes and losses. It has also been key in surviving the sometimes traumatic work involved in working with clients in psychotherapeutic relationships. This article explores some of the underlying research into writing for personal and professional development with illustrations from both personal and professional life.

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/0889367042000197376

Lessons from writing sessions: a school-based randomized trial with adolescent orphans in Rwanda.

Eur J Psychotraumatol. 2014 Dec 22;5:24917. doi: 10.3402/ejpt.v5.24917. eCollection 2014.

Treatments for adolescents affected by long-term loss in low- and middle-income countries are lacking. As school-based interventions are cost-efficient and easy to disseminate, an evaluation of this treatment setting for adolescents is worthwhile.

OBJECTIVE:

Examining the effect of a school-based unstructured emotional writing intervention (sensu Pennebaker, group 1) about the loss of a parent to reduce adaptation problems to loss, compared to writing about a hobby (group 2), and non-writing (group 3).

METHOD:

We randomly assigned 14-18-year-old Rwandan orphans to one of the three conditions (n=23 per condition). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed the Prolonged Grief Questionnaire for Adolescents and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents, Part A, on depression as self-report measures of long-term effects of early parental loss.

RESULTS:

Repeated measures analyses of variance showed no differential effect for any of the three conditions but revealed a significant effect of time at posttest regarding grief severity. Reduction of grief symptoms was significantly higher in subjects with elevated grief. Depressive symptoms showed no significant change from pre- to posttest in the emotional writing condition, whereas they significantly decreased in the control condition.

CONCLUSIONS:

RESULTS imply that unstructured, brief emotional writing might not be indicated in adolescents affected by early parental loss who show severe and long-term distress; a more structured approach seems recommendable.

 

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25537814

Languages of Grief: a model for understanding the expressions of the bereaved

Health Psychol Behav Med. 2014 Jan 1; 2(1): 132–143.
Published online 2014 Jan 22. doi:  10.1080/21642850.2013.879041

Figures of grief: metaphors from a bereavement writing group.

Omega (Westport). 2007-2008;56(4):359-67.

Young E1.

In a community-based bereavement writing group, patterns of metaphor emerged and helped the group members identify and deal with particularly challenging aspects of death and grief, including taboo subjects such as abuse and suicide. The metaphors show how a bereavement writing group functioned to address the needs of people coping with different kinds of grief effectively and efficiently. Analysis of the specific metaphors suggests why figurative language enabled the group to bond quickly and strongly, delve into the complex emotions death elicits, and integrate experiences of loss and grief safely and productively. The patterns of metaphors the group produced in their writing about death and grief are discussed in terms of bereavement processes, and the topics the group used to elicit the figures of speech are presented for further refinement and use.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18435327

The efficacy of a brief internet-based self-help intervention for the bereaved.

Behav Res Ther. 2010 May;48(5):359-67. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2009.12.009. Epub 2009 Dec 23

Research so far has shown little evidence that written disclosure facilitates recovery from bereavement. There are good reasons to assume that written disclosure may only benefit those bereaved who are at risk for developing problems or who are experiencing significant psychological problems as a result of their loss, and only when appropriate writing instructions are used. Drawing on previous work in the area of post-traumatic stress, a writing intervention was designed to test these assumptions. Bereaved individuals, who were still significantly distressed by their loss, were randomly assigned to the intervention condition (N = 460) or a waiting-list control condition (N = 297). Both groups filled in questionnaires online at baseline, and 3 and 6 months later. The intervention was administered via e-mail immediately after baseline measurement. Results showed that writing decreased feelings of emotional loneliness and increased positive mood, in part through its effect on rumination. However, writing did not affect grief or depressive symptoms. Contrary to expectations, effects did not depend on participants’ risk profile or baseline distress level. Implications of these findings are discussed.